Documentation in Essays:

How to FOOTNOTE

               http://www.aresearchguide.com/index.html

In academic research papers and in any other writing that borrows information from sources, the borrowed information (such as quotations, summaries, paraphrases, statistics or any facts of ideas that are not common knowledge), must be clearly documented.

WHAT ARE FOOTNOTES?
Footnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Bibliography section. [1]


WHERE DO FOOTNOTES GO?
There are TWO parts to a footnote:

1) immediately after a citation(s) (quote, statistic, etc.) a small number is inserted (each citation is given a number in chronological order)[2]

2) at the bottom (foot) of the very same page where the direct citation(s) were made, a footnote is placed that consists of the same small number as the citation and all the publishing information. [3]


HOW DO I FOOTNOTE USING MY COMPUTER?
Step 1:  Click on insert
Step 2:  click on footnote
Step 3:  choose footnote
Step 4:  click OK
Step 5:  type in publication information as follows:
         
Author’s First Name, Author’s Last Name, Title of Source.
           (Place of Publishing:  Publisher, copyright date)  page number.

Step 6:  scroll back up to your essay

HOW DO I EMBED QUOTATIONS IN MY ESSAY?


1)  If the citation (quote, summary etc.) is 3 lines or LESS, then it is placed within the essay itself with quotations marks.

 
EXAMPLE:  
The high tariffs were put in place in order to protect the industries within the country but unfortunately, they also “choked off international trade”.[4]

 



2)  If the citation is more than three lines, then it must be set off by indenting the citation five spaces on left margin and five spaces on right margin without quotation marks.

EXAMPLE:
Through the 1920’s many people bought items on credit.  Due to the fact that this was  something new to society, many people went above their budget.

            The piano that cost $445 cash was purchased with $15
            down and $12 a month for the next four or five years. 
            With the interest payments, it ended up costing far more
            than it was worth.  Sometimes by the time the purchases
            were paid for, they were ready for the junk pile.[5]


 
    
     
 


[1] G. Wayne Miller, How to Footnote in Research Essays (New York:  Oxford University Press) 245.

[2] Alan Dundes, “Footnote”, World Book Encyclopaedia, 2000 ed.

[3] I. Lee, “Sample Footnotes in MLA Style”, A Research Guide for Students
http://www.aresearchguide.com/samplefootnote.html (September 30, 2004)

[4] Bradley, Cruxton.  Spotlight Canada:  Fourth Edition.  (Ontario:  Oxford University Press, 2000) 185.

[5] Bradley, Cruxton.  Spotlight Canada:  Fourth Edition.  (Ontario:  Oxford University Press, 2000) 226.