Colonization in Africa
Important Events Important People Spotlight on Colonies Effects of Colonization Causes
1. Important Events
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Causes (These two important events helped to cause colonization in Africa. )
Berlin conference 1884-1885
Before the conference 80% of Africa was under local and traditional rule.
German chancellor Otto von Bismark gathered the major western powers of the world together.
The purpose of this conference was to negotiate the control of Africa.
It divided the land up amongst the western powers of the time.
Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden-Norway,Turkey, and the United States were all present at this conference.
Africans were not involved in the conference and had no say in what happened to their land.
Scramble for Africa
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Berlin conference 1884-1885 (The conference caused the scramble to begin and intensify quickly. )
This is a Map of Africa by the time the Scramble for Africa was finished
index_img1.gif Untitled
The scramble for Africa was at its peak between 1885 and 1900
between 1885 and 1900 European powers were rushing to gain African territory.
They wanted territory so that they could make colonies.
Europeans were able to quickly take over and make colonies because their technology was much more advanced than African technology.
By1912 all of African territory belonged to Europe except for Liberia and Ethiopia.
At the beginning of the scramble Europeans took over with little casualties on both sides, but when the Europeans tried to take over the powerful states there was a lot of bloodshed.
The scramble almost caused many countries to go to war. For example France and England fought over colonies.
In1902 90% of Africa was under European control.
2. Important People
index_img2.gif Cecil Rhodes
Rhodes was a diamond prospector in Kimberly.
His most important achievements was the amalgamation of a large number of diamond-mining claims to form De Beers Mining Company.
He believed that the British could civilize the Africans.
Rhodes and the De Beers Mining Company expanded their territory making their own government and laws.
Rhodes became Prime Minister of Cape Colony, South Africa in 1890.
In 1895 he attempted to overthrow the South African Republic, failed, and had to resign as prime minister.
He used the African land and resources in order to acquire a fortune of approximately 6 million pounds.
index_img3.gif King Leopold II
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He was the owner of the Congo Free State.
He turned the Congo Free State into a labour camp and made a fortune for himself.
During his rule over the Congo somewhere between 2 and 15 million native people died.
3. Spotlight on Colonies
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German South West Africa
Many local uprisings occurred against German rule.
The largest of uprising that occurred was the Herero Wars.
During the Herero war remote farms were attacked, and approximately 150 German settlers were killed.
French Equatorial Africa
The French possessed from Congo river to Sahara desert.
French Equatorial Africa was a former administrative grouping of four French territories in west central Africa.
The French owned 2,500,000 sq km in this area.
Belgium Congo
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King Leopold II (He independently owned the Congo Free State but gave it up to Belgium eventually.)
Wild rubber and ivory were harvested in the Congo. It was acquired through the exploitation of the Congo citizens.
There was a lot of abuse in the Belgian Congo. Hands of people were cut off if the right amount of resources were not harvested.
Taxes were put on people which had to be paid in rubber which caused them to work for Belgium.
4. Effects of Colonization
Social
Apartheid
Taxes were put on Africans to make a need for income. It caused men to leave families.
Diamond deposits discovered in South Africa in 1867. African workers put in compounds to keep them from stealing.
New Union of South Africa denied African political rights
Apartheid cause segregation between black people and white people.
Racism gave freedom as a right to the white but not to the non-whites.
Migration changed ethnic composition of Africa.
Economic
Colonies incorporates in capitalist system which forced local people into cash economy.
Colonies became exporters of raw materials because they could not keep up with manufacturers. They became markets for manufactured goods.
Change form subsistence economy to export economy, created market for trade, and dependency.
Cultural
Fundamental cultures of people changed under European rule.
Native language was turned into second language. Even now the first language is of European rule.
Changed religion, mostly to Christianity.
Conflict
WW1
The colonization in Africa helped to cause WW1 because it created tension between the many countries competing for African land.
It helped to form the Triple Alliance because France occupied Tunisia which partly convinced Italy to join the Austrian German Alliance.
index_img4.gif The Triple Alliance is the green countries.
Boer War
Conflicts over gold fields between British and the Native Boers.
5. Causes
Political
European countries wanted the prestige of global empire
Rivalries
Countries wanted what others had. If colonies were owned by rival countries then a country would want a colonies as well.
Countries wanted to become stronger than their rivals. Colonies could help to strengthen a country.
Social
Europeans believed in Social Darwinism "survival of the fittest" which allowed them to take over Africa.
The idea that competition between nations drives social evolution.
European countries used Africa to spread Christianity.
European self confidence had gone up, and they believed that they had the right to own colonies.
Economic
Commercial Greed
Industrial Revolution
Colonies in Africa were used to fuel the revolution.
The colonies supplied a new market, a place to get raw materials, and workers to harvest these raw materials.
Europeans wanted more and more money and profit.
The European population were growing and they needed more wealth to support the population.