Age of Absolution 1600-1715
Western Art: 17th Cent. Age of Absolutism Scientific Method and the Birth of Modern Philosophy Life in 17th Cent. England England in the 17th Century Absolutism in Eastern Europe Louis XIV: The Sun King The Scientific Revolution
1. Western Art: 17th Cent.
Visual Arts
Gianlorenzo Berlini Most admired and succesful sculptor in Baroque era Had so many patrons that some works were done by assistants
Michelanglo Merisi da Caravaggio Influenced many Italian, Spanish and northern European artists Never made preliminary drawings
Artemisia Gentileschi Caravaggio's faithful follower One of the first woman artists to influence Western art
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Rembrandt van Rijn His paintings are described as some of the most profound Christian inages produced by a Protesant Rejected the traditional arrangement for portraits
Music
Jean-Baptiste Lully (Giovanni Battista Lulli) Inventor of French opera, great french composer, superb dancer Composed and made ballets for King Louis XIV
Literature
John Dryden Developed lucid, clear prose - model for all writing
Moliere France's most celebrated playwright of 17th Cent. & most controversial person Satirized aristocrats, priests etc. & fortunately protected by Louis XIV
2. Age of Absolutism
Absolutism = monarchy has divine right to rule
Cardinal Richelieu weakened powers of reginal nobility & installed Successor Jules Mazarin raised taxes and initiated Fronde civil wars Traumatized Louis XIV developed belief of anarchy=peace
3. Scientific Method and the Birth of Modern Philosophy
Francis Bacon Rejected deductive methods of Middle Ages; believed in direct observation in seeking truth Also believed knowledge is the basis of power
Rene Descartes Laid foundations of modern philosophy Developed application of methods and reasoning in math and philosophy Believed all things can be doubted (only sure thing = we exist 'I think, therefore I am.') Universe is purely mechanical & physical God exists because God cannot be physically experienced
Thomas Hobbes 'State of nature' - time free of social organization; people were free of restrictions and responsibilities; but must fend for self (life as such is 'short, nasty, & brutish') Believed humans were born selfish & agressive, therefore social organizations must be established to govern humans 'State of peace' = laws & absolute sovereign (ie. Canada)
John Locke Also used 'state of nature' but thought overtime people willingly formed society & surrendered freedoms to be governed Believed power remains in people and govenment act on people's behalf (ie. States)
4. Life in 17th Cent. England
English society comprised of many social classes Slow spread of Renaissance and scientific revolutions to the lower classes Family units consisted of parent children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, servants, boarders, apprentices etc. Male (father) was head of household & usuall kept tight control over family members Eldest son valued, daughters and second-sons were disregarded (many remained unmarried) Much death occurred because of diseases, poor nourishment & neglect of hygiene
5. England in the 17th Century
James I England goverened by constitutional monarchy Increased taxes, renewed debts (x common folk), sold titles (x nobility), sold monopolies (x merchants) 'Wisest fool in Christendom' - negative image amongst people
Charles I Escalated Crown's conflict with Parliament Eleven Years of Tyranny due to Parliament's refusal to raise taxes Suspended parliment in 1629 Initiated civil war (Royalists vs. Roundheads) Charged with treason and beheaded
The Glorious Revolution Dutch monarch, William of the House of Orange, laid claim on England's throne + King James II fleeing = the Glorious Revolution English Parliament passed Bill of Rights to prevent absolute monarchy
Economic Changes in 17th Cent. England Comprised of local economies (market towns) Regional specialization occurred - taking advantage of of local soil & climates Brought birth to many English cities
6. Absolutism in Eastern Europe
Peter the Great First czar of Russia at 10 Learnt from the Western Europe, sent emissaries to Europe and Asia to earn from them Westerized Russia (dress, manners, architecture) Taxed everything to secure power (from beards to corners in a house) 'Peter...placed Russia among the European states and...instill(ed) respect for her...'
7. Louis XIV: The Sun King
Consolidating Power Centralized power under himself (army building, presiding over the three councils, challenged Catholic Church & revoked Edict of Nantes - granted to French Protestants) Gave birth to modern bureaucratic state
Colbert`s Economic Reforms Jean-Baptiste Colbert - controller general Believed French success = self sufficiency Created powerful merchant marine - colonization encouraged and fluorished
The Palace of Versailles Took nearly 20 yrs. to finish - supposed to enhance the majesty of the king Tool to control French aristocrats, disarm potential threats, & to occupy the nobles
Wars and Legacy Louis fought a series of wars to gain land and wealth No major territories were gained through war but important ones were gained through the Peace of Nijmegen (ironic) Louis XIV`s reign left France impoverished and on the brink of revolts
8. The Scientific Revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus Among the first to challenge traditional views Put forth idea of heliocentric universe in his book Revolutions of the Celestial Sphere
Galileo Galilei Florentine astronomer Formulated principle of inertia Built telescope in 1609 Support of Copernican views brought him against Catholic Church; tortured and forced to recant views; lived life in house arrest
Tycho Brahe Danish aristocrat and astronomer Disproved Aristotle`s theory of a universe with unalterable stars
Johannes Kepler German contemorary of Galileo Wrote three universal laws of planetary motion
Issac Newton English scientist Formulated Three Laws of Motion - finished work started by Copernicus
William Harvey English physician Published On the Motionof the Heart and Blood in Animals Discovered circulation of blood (workings of the circulatory system)