CHAPTER 14 OVERVIEW
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Motivation - Theory & Practice

Motivation to work describes the forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. While most people are very interested in the topic of motivation,

they also tend to hold strong biases concerning the processes through which motivation is achieved. This chapter provides a well-rounded perspective of the different factors that influence people’s motivation.

The chapter begins by discussing the interrelationships between rewards, motivation, and performance. Next, the major theories of work motivation are examined in detail. Four content theories of motivation are discussed. These are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired-needs theory. Three process theories of motivation are also examined. These include equity theory, expectancy theory, and goal- setting theory, all of which are cognitively based. Reinforcement theory, which uses environmental consequences to explain motivation, is explored next. The chapter then focuses on an integrated model of motivation that ties together key ideas from the content, process, and reinforcement theories of motivation. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the relationship between compensation and motivation, and the dynamics associated with pay for performance and different incentive compensation systems.
Management Fundamentals Canadian Edition Schermerhorn -Wright